Awabakal means people of Awaba— which in ritual language means Lake Macquarie. Pre-contact, there were four Awabakal clans with each respecting territorial boundaries—but meeting for social and ceremonial occasions.
Historical written records note that traditional Awabakal were a very spiritual and moral people with a high level of honesty and respect for their elders. They doted on their children. Important decisions were made by all adult members; men and women.
After 1837, the number of Awabakal was substantially reduced by disease and massacre but many descendants recognise the significance of Traditional Awabakal Country.
Virtual Sourcebook for Aboriginal Studies in the Hunter Region Guide
Hunter Living Histories - Awabakal
Lake Macquarie City Council - Awabakal
Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council